Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are increasingly common human health conditions which are referred to as a metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined as the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes increases cardiovascular mortality. Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder characterized by impaired homeostasis of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism which ultimately leads to persistently elevated blood glucose levels. The most recent estimates of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) indicate that 8.3 % of adults – 382 million people – have diabetes in 2013, and the number of people with the disease is set to rise beyond 592 million if current demographic patterns continue The underlying cause of diabetes is either decrease in the synthesis/secretion of insulin (type 1 diabetes mellitus or by insulin resistance, followed later by death of pancreas’ β-cells (T2DM). T2DM which constitutes the vast majority of diabetes is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by impairment of insulin sensitivity, followed by the inability of pancreatic β cells to compensate for insulin resistance (pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction)
The dried fruits of TT were bought from the local market in Yaoundé, Cameroon, and identified at the national herbarium. Pulps were isolated, ground, and extracted using a mixture of ethanol and water (50:50). Briefly, 5 kg of pulps were shade dried and powdered, then extracted with 50 % ethanol for 24 h. After filtration and evaporation of the solvent, the extract was obtained.